The Universal Law of Slavery – George Fitzhugh, 1850
He the Negro is but a grown up child, and must be governed as a child, not as a lunatic or criminal. The
master occupies toward him the place of parent or guardian. We shall not dwell on this view, for no one
will differ with us who thinks as we do of the negro’s capacity, and we might argue till dooms-day in vain,
with those who have a high opinion of the negro’s moral and intellectual capacity. Secondly. The negro is
improvident; will not lay up in summer for the wants of winter; will not accumulate in youth for the exigencies
of age. He would become an insufferable burden to society. Society has the right to prevent this, and can
only do so by subjecting him to domestic slavery. In the last place, the negro race is inferior to the white
race, and living in their midst, they would be far outstripped or outwitted in the chaos of free competition.
Gradual but celiain extermination would be their fate. We presume the maddest abolitionist does not think
the negro’s providence of habits and money-making capacity at all to compare to those of the whites. This
defect of character would alone justify enslaving him, if he is to remain here. In Africa or the West Indies,
he would become idolatrous, savage and cannibal, or be devoured by savages and cannibals. At the North
he would freeze or starve. We would remind those who deprecate and sympathize with negro slavery, that
his slavery here relieves him from a far more cruel slavery in Africa, or from idolatry and cannibalism, and
every brutal vice and crime that can disgrace humanity; and that it christianizes, protects, supports and
civilizes him; that it governs him far better than free laborers at the north are governed. There, wife-murder
has become a mere holiday pastime; and where so many wives are murdered, almost all must be brutally
treated. Nay, more; men who kill their wive sor treat them brutally, must be ready for all kinds of crime,
and the calendar of crime at the North proves the inference to be correct.
Negroes never kill their wives. If it be objected that legally they have no wives, then we reply, that in
an experience of more than forty years, we never yet heard of a negro man killing a negro wonian.
Our negroes are not only better off as to physical comfort than free laborers, but their moral condition
is better. The negro slaves of the South are the happiest, and, in some sense, the freest people in the
world. The children and the aged and infirm work not at all, and yet have all the comforts and necessaries
of life provided for them. They enjoy liberty, because they are oppressed neither by care nor labor. The
women do little hard work, and are protected from the despotism of their husbands by their masters. The
negro men and stout boys work, on the average, in good weather, not more than nine hours a day. The
balance of their time is spent in perfect abandon. Besides’ they have their Sabbaths and holidays. White
men, with so much of license and liberty, would die of but negroes luxuriate in corporeal and mental repose.
With their faces upturned to the sun, they can sleep at any hour; and quiet sleep is the greatest of human
enjoyments. “Blessed be the man who invented sleep.” ‘Tis happiness in itself, and results from contentment
with the present, and confident assurance of the future. A common charge preferred against slavery is, that
it induces idleness with the masters. The trouble, care and labor, of providing for wife, children and slaves,
and of properly governing and administering the whole affairs of the farm, is usually borne on small estates
by the master. On larger ones, he is aided by an overseer or manager. If they do their duty, their time is fully
occupied. Ifthey do not, the estate goes to ruin. The mistress, on Southern farms, is usually more busily,
usefully and benevolently occupied than anyone on the farm. She unites in her person, the offices of wife,
mother, mistress, housekeeper, and sister of charity.
And she fulfills all these offices adirably well. The rich men, in free society, may, if they please, lounge about
town, visit clubs, attend the theatre, and have no other trouble than that of collecting rents, interest and dividends
of stock. In a well constituted slave society, there should be no idlers. But we cannot divine how the capitalists
in free society are to put to work. The master labors for the slave, they exchange industrial value. But the
capitalist, living on his income, gives nothing to his subjects. He lives by mere exploitations.